In order for food to be used by your body, all of the carbohydrates must be broken down into monosaccharides, simple sugars (glucose, fructose and galactose) in the stomach and intestines. They are absorbed in the bloodstream and can be used in various ways by the body.
Carbohydrates are chemical substances grouped together: sugars, glycogen, starches, dextrins, and celluloses, that contain only carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Carbohydrates are one of the three classes of nutrients. They are formed by green plants which utilize the sun’s energy to combine carbon dioxide, and water in forming them.
1. Monosaccharides-a simple sugar which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis (fructose, galactose, glucose)
How the Body uses Sugar from Food
a. Used directly by the body as a source of energy
II. How it is achieved:
b. The pancreas secrets Insulin (hormone)
III. Galactose and Fructose
c. Converted into glucose in the liver
Note: Glucose can be converted into glycogen (Polysaccharide) stored in the liver or muscle for the body’s future energy requirements.
Provides energy in concentrated forms both visible and invisible.
Visible Fat: butter, lard, margarine and oils.
Invisible Fat: meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, chocolate, nuts and legumes.
II. Transportation of Fats in the Blood
a. Carried in the bloodstream bound to protein, forming particles called lipoproteins.
Note: Most of the fats in food are triglycerides. (a combination of three fatty acids with glycerol)
Some foods contain small amounts of cholesterol. The fats in food eaten are dissolved in the intestine by the action of bile salts. This process takes place from the triglycerides split into glycogen and fatty acids entering into the walls of the intestine, and reconstructed into triglycerides which are absorbed through the lymphatic system and carried to the bloodstream.
At the same time the process of fatty acids are being absorbed, the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are absorbed. One interesting point I will make, cholesterol can be absorbed into the lymphatic system without the need to be broken down prior.
Source of Information:
__Ellen J. Barrier