In order for food to be used by your body, all of the carbohydrates must be broken down into monosaccharides, simple sugars (glucose, fructose and galactose) in the stomach and intestines. They are absorbed in the bloodstream and can be used in various ways by the body.
Carbohydrates are chemical substances grouped together: sugars, glycogen, starches, dextrins, and celluloses, that contain only carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Carbohydrates are one of the three classes of nutrients. They are formed by green plants which utilize the sun’s energy to combine carbon dioxide, and water in forming them.
1. Monosaccharides-a simple sugar which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis (fructose, galactose, glucose)
How the Body uses Sugar from Food
a. Used directly by the body as a source of energy
II. How it is achieved:
b. The pancreas secrets Insulin (hormone)
III. Galactose and Fructose
c. Converted into glucose in the liver
Note: Glucose can be converted into glycogen (Polysaccharide) stored in the liver or muscle for the body’s future energy requirements.
Provides energy in concentrated forms both visible and invisible.
Visible Fat: butter, lard, margarine and oils.
Invisible Fat: meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, chocolate, nuts and legumes.
II. Transportation of Fats in the Blood
a. Carried in the bloodstream bound to protein, forming particles called lipoproteins.
Note: Most of the fats in food are triglycerides. (a combination of three fatty acids with glycerol)
Some foods contain small amounts of cholesterol. The fats in food eaten are dissolved in the intestine by the action of bile salts. This process takes place from the triglycerides split into glycogen and fatty acids entering into the walls of the intestine, and reconstructed into triglycerides which are absorbed through the lymphatic system and carried to the bloodstream.
At the same time the process of fatty acids are being absorbed, the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are absorbed. One interesting point I will make, cholesterol can be absorbed into the lymphatic system without the need to be broken down prior.
Source of Information:
__Ellen J. Barrier
The purpose of the digestive system or tract, is to process or break down food for absorption from the intestines into the bloodstream. It also, expels waste products from the body. The digestive system, also called the alimentary canal consists of the mouth, teeth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and large intestines. The accessory glands are salivary glands, liver, and pancreas. They are called accessory glands for their ability to assist other organs in performing their functions, as accessory reproductive organs.
On the left side of the diagram On the right side of the diagram
Rectum Small Intestine
Ellen J. Barrier
Source for diagram:
The American Medical Association
To put it simple, Anatomy is the structure of the body parts, and Physiology is how each of the body parts function. Let’s start with the inner parts of the body, called the systems which are the structure of the body parts, and after which, we will list the function of each system. The body is built like a sophisticated machine that only its creator completely understand its operations. After studying Anatomy and Physiology, I understood clearly what the writer of Psalm 139: 14
meant by his statement as noted below.
“I am fearfully and wonderfully made: marvelous are thy works; and that my soul knoweth right well.”
We can conclude that the body systems are an organized group of organs or cells related to each other. Where as each organ performs a specific or a certain function. Let’s begin with the Circulatory System.
The heart is a hollow muscular contractible organ that is the center of the Circulatory System. It is divided into 4 chambers. There are two upper champers with thin walls and two lower chambers with thick walls.
The two upper chambers are called the atria (left and right). The two lower chambers are called ventricles.
The two sides of the heart are separated by a strong muscular wall known as the septum. There are several valves in the heart. They are; Pulmonary, Tricuspid, Mitral, and Aortic. Each valve is lined with a membrane called Endocardium.
The muscle of the heart is called, Myocardium. Inside of this muscle, there are fibers that forms a network of branches called arteries and veins. The Aorta, is the largest artery in the body. It leads from the left ventricle and supplies the body with oxygenated blood.
The Pulmonary artery leads from the right ventricle. It divides into two branches that supply used blood to the right and left lungs.
Inside of the heart is lined with a smooth membrane called the Endocardium.
Pericardium is a tough membrane that is double-layered covering the heart as a bag.
There is a space between the two layers of Pericardium and Endocardium that contains a thin layer of fluid that lubricates and allows free movement of the heart muscle within the outer bag.
Being that the heart works hardest of all the muscles in the body, it has large energy requirements that need an adequate supply of fresh oxygenated blood to maintain its actions, as all of the muscles in the body do.
The heart has a network of branches which is its own system of arteries, capillaries, and veins exclusively for its own blood supply. This system is call the Coronary. The reason behind the name is due to the arteries surround the upper portion of the heart like a crown. The word “Corona” in Latin mean crown. Both the right and left Coronary arteries arise from the beginning of the Aorta. From that point, smaller branches pass into the heart. The left artery is divided into two large branches; Right Coronary artery and left Coronary artery.
1. The heart rate is approximate 70 beats per minute at rest for an adult.
2. During strenuous exercise, the heart rate can become 200 beats per minute.
3. The heart contracts about 100,000 times per day and more than 2.5 billion time in an average lifetime.
4. The heart pumps at least 9 pints (4.5 liters) of blood per minute.
5. The heart pumps about 1,500 gallons (6,000 liters) of blood daily.
6. The heart generates enough power in a day to drive a truck 20 miles.
The Body Systems:
1. circulatory – circulates body fluids. It includes both cardiovascular
(heart and blood vessels) and the lymphatic systems
2. digestive – is defined as the Alimentary Canal. This includes the mouth, teeth, tongue,
pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, accessory glands (salivary glands, liver, pancreas)
3. endocrine- ductless glands that produces an internal secretion discharged into the blood
or lymph. It is then circulated into all of the body parts.
4. hematopoietic _ has to do with the production and development of blood cells.
5. integumentary- consists of the skin, hair and nails and its appendages.
6. lymphatic-circulates lymph. It includes lymph vessels, lymphatic organs
(lymph nodes, ducts, tonsils, thymus, spleen)
7. muscular- includes all of the muscles (smooth, cardiac, striated, and skeletal)
8. nervous – consists of the brain, ganglia, spinal cord and nerves
9. reproductive-includes the gonads, their structure association and ducts.
10. respiratory- consists of the air passageway and organs (nasal cavities, oral cavity
pharynx, trachea, and lungs (bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli.
11. skeletal- The bony framework of the body.
12. urinary – Secreting or containing urine.
___ Ellen J. Barrier
Source for diagram of the heart:
The American Medical Association